Chemical characterization, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Greek Thymus vulgaris extracts and their possible synergism with Egyptian Chlorella vulgaris

The present work examined the functional constituents, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Greek Thymus vulgaris (TV) oil and water extracts. Also, the possible synergism between Egyptian Chlorella vulgaris ethanolic extract (CVE) and TV oil or water extracts was evaluated. The phytochemicals, total antioxidant capacity, reducing power, antiradical, and anti-lipid peroxidation abilities of the extracts were evaluated. Also, this study measured the ability of the extracts to detoxify the LPS-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in vitro. The extracts showed high phenolic and triterpenoid content. The combined extracts displayed higher antioxidant effects than individual extracts. The anti-inflammatory assay indicated a potent synergistic effect of the tested combinations. Since they attenuated the LPS-induced elevation in the nuclear factor-kappa (NF-к) B, inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, NO and oxidative stress. Thus, Greek TV extracts have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, which can be potentiated by mixing with CVE.